They are designed for long service life (more than 60 years) while maintaining the physical properties of wood sleepers. Freight car derailments due to multiple causes decreased significantly with improved carriage performance and stricter inspection based on the new control index. Slab versus ballasted tracks Figure 7: Design of Track Inspection Cars Type Mass kg/m Bending characteristic W x [mm3] 4 Moment of inertia I x [mm ] Height H [mm] Foot width S [mm] Head width G [mm] S49 49,43 240 x 103 1819 x 104 149 125 65,4 S54 354,54 4262 x 10 2073 x 10 154 125 65,8 UIC50 50,18 253,6 x 103 1940 x 104 152 125 68,6 UIC54 454,43 279,19 x 103 2127 x 10 159 140 68,6 UIC60 360,34 335,5 x 10 3055 x 104 172 150 70,6 About 30 years ago, European railway engineers in countries with advanced railway technology were examining car and track systems for trains running at speeds over 200 km/h. The rails are supported continuously on the concrete members, which distribute the load lengthwise, reducing the need for ballast maintenance. The passengers feel thrown towards the outside of the curve due to the unbalanced centrifugal force which depends on the speed. Figure 9: âmicro-LABOCSâ Track Maintenance Database System, Movable nodes eliminating gaps at turnouts and crossings, Long rails joined by expansion joints to minimize gauge fluctuation due to thermal elongation and shrinkage, New-design 53 kg/m rail (50T and later entirely replaced by 60 kg/m rail), Increasing track rigidity or using larger sleepers. In addition to economy, the design is a rational structure for supporting heavy fast trains on soft ground. These phenomena are prevented using reinforced fastenings, sleepers and ballast. The recommended side slope for track embankment is. An alignment is defined in two fashions. The other major concerns today are reducing noise pollution for people living near tracks, and preserving the natural environment. Rails can be welded end-to-end using any of four processes: flash butt, thermit, gas pressure, and enclosed arc. A carriage is typically comprised of three elements: body, truck, and axles (Figure 6). The system provides a restored waveform calculated from 10-m chord alignment data that accurately represents the actual track profile over a limited waveband (for example, 6â100 m). Current concerns of railways are also technical issue for tracks. The limiting value of cant deficiency for broad gauge in indian railways is, [ When the speed is geater than 100 km/h]. Slab tracks are also being used experimentally on the earthwork section between Takasaki and Nagano of the Hokuriku Shinkansen (presently called Nagano-bound Shinkansen) which began operation in October 1997. The track inspection car plays an important role in inspecting the track condition, pinpointing sections requiring repair, and confirming the repair work. In addition, frequent train passages increase the grade sag at rail joints and welded joints as well as the rail surface roughness. Learn how your comment data is processed. A large, lateral track irregularity can even cause derailment due to climbing or jumping of the wheel over the rail. Tracks are long, large structures stretching hundreds or thousands of kilometers. Figure 1 shows that railway track consists essentially of rails and sleepers, laid in and fixed by ballast on a road bed. CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION. The high efficiency of railway transportation puts railways ahead of air transport in Japan, where the dense population is scattered along the Pacific coastal plain. All these railway track components work together, which keep the railway … Japan has achieved a tremendous development, both social and economic, over the following 125 years, and railways have been no exception. Efforts are currently under way to coordinate this system with an automatic control system for tamping machines to introduce a completely new dimension in fully-automated track maintenance, Figure 6: Wavelength of Track Irregularity and Car Movement These needs are currently being met by developing a two-truck track inspection car for shinkansen tracks with a maximum speed in the range of 300 km/h, approaching that of commercial trains. The top width of a track embankment is known as. Since slab track is lighter than ballasted track as a whole, the construction cost of a new railway based on slab track, including the viaduct cost, can be less in certain cases. Rail surface roughness can be inspected directly but is inefficient due to the slow measurement speed. Rail fastenings This alone is more than likely to offset the difference in construction costs between slab-track and ballasted-track railways. In particular, experience with asphalt in the track superstructure (the traditional superstructure consists of the rails, the sleepers, fastenings and the ballast) and in the -ballast layer has sub shown that these types of construction are able to fully meet the requirements of modern railway tracks. Today, slab track is the standard on concrete bed sections such as viaducts and tunnels. Number of pieces required, Net tons required or Track feet required. The train load is modelled by applying static line load and the rail is represented by an equivalent square of the same cross-sectional area. Use of track irregularity data Japan is a mountainous archipelago with narrow coastal plains. A slab track means a reinforced concrete (RC) slab laid on a viaduct or other rugged bed, and secured to the bed using cement asphalt (Figure 5). A slow change in track irregularity over a long span (known as a long-wave track irregularity) mainly affects the vertical and lateral body vibration resulting in a poor ride. In France, it was thought that speeds over 200 km/h were possible on ballasted tracks, but in Germany, it was thought that although ballasted track could endure speeds up to 200 km/h, slab track or other types of ballasted tracks would be required for higher speeds. This method more efficiently identifies trouble spots causing such fluctuations. The first railway in Japan was built using a narrow gauge (1067 mm) to meet these geographical conditions and the need for economy; the narrow gauge became the standard for all state-owned railways until the first shinkansen in 1964. The photograph below shows the newly-developed solid-bed track with removable resilient sleepers. One was to increase the transport capacity by adding narrow-gauge double track to the existing Tokaido Line. the shinkansen, or 30â50 m at about 160 km/h on conventional lines (Figure 8). Concrete Barrier. Role of track inspection cars Photo: Labour-saving E-type paved track (RTRI) The slope in the cross sectional view of the traveled way, travel lanes, shoulders, median surface, or gutters, expressed as inch(es) per foot (percent) based on the change in vertical compared to the change in horizontal. Photo: High-speed turnout (1:38) (RTRI). The behaviour varies with the nature of the irregularity. An increased lateral thrust can spread the rails, also leading to derailment. High-speed turnouts Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The progress of railways and their role in society is supported by new technological achievements in many areas. Meanwhile, in Japan, the highest speed at that time of 425 km/h was reached in December 1993 on slab tracks of the Joetsu Shinkansen. Economy of slab tracks Railway Track Design Basic considerations and guidelines to be used in the establishment of railway horizontal and vertical alignments. The new inspection car uses three of its four axles to obtain data that are converted to similar data to those obtained by the earlier three-truck car. 10. In this paper a new track model is introduced with the aim of improving noise and vibration predictions by including discrete supports as well as rail cross-sectional deformation. Specify rail weight and section 2. RAILWAY NOISE, WHEELS, DAMPING ABSTRACT The rolling-noise generating characteristics of a railway wheel design have been studied theoretically. Shinkansen track structure The French and German railway operators had slightly different views about this issue. is delivered to structure on a cycle in railway bridge. cross section elements to assure safe operation of the facility. Highway alignment and Engineering Surveys, Geometric design of Highways - Cross-Sectional elements, Sight distances, Horizontal and Vertical alignments, Geometric design of Railway track, Airport runway length, Taxiway and Exit Taxiway design Track is one of the most important technical elements in railway operations. Photo: Newly-developed âLadder Sleepersâ (RTRI) Similar developments are also under way for an entirely new low-cost track inspection car for narrow-gauge tracks. Targets for controlling track and rail surface irregularity must be established, and the track must be inspected accordingly at regular intervals, to maintain safety and ride quality, and to minimize dynamic loads, noise and vibration. They were soon replaced around 1880 by asymmetrical steel flat-bottom rails of greater toughness. Their main concern was whether it would be possible to repair the track ballast frequently enough before it was loosened by the severe impact of the high-speed train operation. They consist of 12-m long pre-stressed longitudinal concrete members bound by lateral steel tubes like a ladder. The physico-mechanical properties of the computer model are defined: the density Safety, speed, and ride comfort have always been major concerns for Japanese railway companies. Component parts of railway track The Typical components are – Rails, – Sleepers (or ties), – Fasteners, – Ballast (or slab track), – Subgrade GAUGE The clear minimum horizontal distance between the inner (running) faces of the two rails forming a track is known as Gauge. These irregularities must be located and corrected by rail grinding. Minimum formation width in embankment as recommended by Indian Railway Board in single track iseval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'civilnoteppt_com-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_7',672,'0','0'])); 5. As discussed later, slab track is a recent preference for high-speed operations, requiring less maintenance. The standard rail length is 25 m, but continuous-welded rails (CWR), or long rails, are used on main sections to improve ride quality and reduce noise and vibration. However, conventional ballasted track is still found on more than 90% of railways in Japan. Railway Track Cross section. Illinois CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS September 2010 34-1.2 HARD COPIES UNCONTROLLED Cross Slope. It calculates track section evaluation indexes and long-wave track irregularity, analyses the track irregularity wavelength and relationship with car behaviour, and identifies long-term changes in track irregularity. The latter plan was eventually chosen, and the new line took a different route from the old Tokaido Line with many viaducts, embankments, and tunnels and without level crossings. Figure 4: Proportions of Ballasted and Slab Tracks on Shinkansen. Track technology has developed in parallel with the railway itself. Railway switch has another name-turnout.Railway switch is simply a rail component for converting track. Therefore, rolling noise can be reduced effectively by grinding out rail surface irregularities. âLadder sleepersâ are another on-going development. Japan is unique in using the gas pressure process and the enclosed arc in addition to the other two, commonly used in other countries. These are a conventional finite element (FE) method and a wavenumber finite element (WFE) method, each of which can include the effects of cross-sectional … At low frequencies a railway track can be modelled as a simple beam on an elastic support, but at high frequencies above about 1.5 kHz, deformation of the cross-section occurs and multiple wave types are sustained .For noise modelling, investigations have usually been limited to the behaviour below 5 kHz , , , , . Protection from vibration and noise is particularly indispensable. Ride quality evaluation taking these factors into consideration is used to determine the alignment maintenance target for curves. Two aspects of design for reducing noise have been investigated, optimisation of the cross-sectional shape of the wheel and addition of a constrained layer damping treatment. Need for track irregularity control Track Geometry - MCQ 1. Although timber sleepers have good elasticity and are lighter and easier to handle than concrete sleepers, their main drawback is short service life due to deterioration. The same holds true for tunnel sections because the lower track height reduces the tunnel cross-sectional area, cutting construction costs by about 30%. The 60-kg rails have the largest cross-sectional area and are used on all shinkansen tracks and other major sections (Figure 2). rail, sleeper, ballast, sub-ballast and subgrade) are represented by linear elastic materials. 3/10/12 Advantages of coning of wheels As a result, a new inspection method has been developed using axlebox vertical vibration acceleration, which has a close correlation with fluctuation in the load on wheels of passenger cars. The CWR is subject to compression loads due to temperature changes, which can cause buckling, or sharp lateral displacement. Specify rail drilling 3. In addition, the design limits the maximum speed to around 200 km/h. Track technology has developed in parallel with the railway itself. © All Right Reserved 2016 – 2020 Civil Engineering, Track Geometry – MCQ || Railway Engineering ||, Railway Stations & Yards – MCQ || Railway Engineering ||, Find the Correction for Curvature & Refraction for a Given Distance, 6 Types of Classification of Gradient - Ruling, Limiting, Exceptional, Minimum, Average and Floating Gradient,  All Traffic Signs or Road Signs Used in India as per IRC, Convert The Whole Circle Bearing to Reduced Bearing - || Rules and Example ||, 10 Types of Roads Classification in India(Urban & Non-Urban Road), Combined Sewer System And Their Advantages and Disadvantages, Hill Roads - MCQ || Highway Engineering ||, Recommended Values of Camber For Different Types Of Road As Per I.R.C, 3 Characteristics of Sewage – Physical, Chemical and Biological Characteristics, TYPES OF RAILS – Double Headed, Bull Headed and Flat Footed Rails, 6 Types of Classification of Gradient – Ruling, Limiting, Exceptional, Minimum, Average and Floating Gradient, Railway Gauge – || Definition || Types || Factor Affecting || Advantages of Uniform Gauge ||, 8 Different Types of Cement Test || Building Materials & Construction, Creep of Rails || Causes of Creep of Rails. They were found to be due to level irregularities inducing car rolling, and alignment irregularity causing increased lateral thrust and attack angle. New or Relay Railway switch is a special component of railway track, which is applied in the railway crossing. However, this difference balances out after about 9 years due the lower maintenance costs of slab track. Figure 3: Different Rail Fastenings Based on these findings, compound track irregularity was set as a new control index. It also features laser-based equipment, a lightweight optical sensor for measuring rail displacement, a high-performance gyroscope, and other technologies (Figure 7). Figure 8: Waveforms of Track Irregularity and Shinkansen Car Behaviour Irregularities due to rail welds and waving wear of the rail cause rolling noise, increased vertical vibration of the wheel, and track deterioration. he route upon which a train travels and the track is constructed is defined as an alignment. To give a train a good ride, the track alignment must be set to within a millimeter of the design. Control of track irregularity is performed at regular intervals and consists of: (1) inspecting track condition, (2) assessing repair need, (3) planning repair, (4) repairing, and (5) confirming repair work. The former increases transverse pressure, while the latter lifts wheels due to relative twist between the truck and the track. Grade compensation recommended for B.G on Indian railway iseval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'civilnoteppt_com-leader-1','ezslot_8',604,'0','0'])); 7. ARA - American Railway Association Class A - (RA) higher rail for high speeds Class B - (RB) lower rail for heavy loads at low speeds ASCE - American Society of Civil Engineers HOW TO ORDER: 1. As a result, some people claim that slab track is more advantageous. Cross-sectional view (a) and finite element mesh (b) of the model of ballasted railway track. Synthetic sleepers made of hard polyurethane foam and glass fiber are a recent unique development in Japan. When a carriage runs on a track with these irregularities, it moves up and down as well as to right and left. Total 23 Questions have been asked from Geometric design of Highways - Cross-Sectional elements, Sight distances, Horizontal and Vertical alignments topic of Transportation Infrastructure subject in previous GATE papers. Track irregularity is detected based on the relative positions of the measured points. A carriage running along a curve at high speed is not affected only by track irregularity. The history of railways in Japan dates back to September 1872 when commercial operation started over a 29-km track between Shimbashi (Tokyo) and Yokohama. There is a case using LCPBT(Longitudinally Coupled ... using finite element analysis. The gradient which requires one or more locomotives for pulling the train up the track is called, a) Ruling gradientb) Station yard gradientc) Momentum gradientd) Pusher gradient, 8. In May 1988, the German ICE marked a speed of 407 km/h and then in May 1990, the French TGV marked a record of 515 km/hâboth records were on ballasted tracks. Track irregularity data obtained by a track inspection car can be converted into digital data, combined with track environment data and stored in a database. The other was to increase the capacity while halving the journey time by building a standard-gauge double-track line. Track irregularity control indexes The railway networks in this relatively small land total over 27,000 km, and up to 2.2 million people ride trains each day. Track stiffness in railway turnouts is variable due to differences in structural composition along the longitudinal direction, which will lead to severe dynamic interaction between train and turnout. These factors increase the burden of track maintenance. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. A 1990 comparison of the economic merits of ballasted and slab tracks on the Tohoku Shinkansen shows that slab track construction costs 1.3 times more than ballasted tracks. The gas pressure process is less efficient than the flash butt process, but it is widely used for both factory and track-side welding because the equipment is easily portable and the joint quality is as good as that of the flash butt process. 1. Railway Engineering Is branch of civil Engineering which deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the railway track so as to obtain efficient and safe movement of trains over the tracks. Welding Track geometry includes a) Cross-sectional elementsb) Gradientc) Curvesd) All of these View Answer d) All of these 2. Consequently, the JRs generally use a 40-m chord alignment method for shinkansen and a 20-m chord alignment method for conventional lines. 6. Concrete sleepers, introduced in early 1950s, are used on most trunk lines today because of their longer service life and greater track stability. Track inspection cars such as the narrow-gauge model built in the 1960s and the shinkansen model nicknamed âDoctor Yellowâ (JRTR 11, front page) built in the 1970s, simultaneously measure the track surface at three points at 5-m intervals. However, the current 10-m chord alignment method is designed primarily for inspecting 10- to 20-m track irregularity, not for longer irregularities. A growing social concern is protecting the track-side environment and residents from pollution problems caused by faster train operations or construction of projected shinkansen. Increasing operation density and other elements are causing growing problems, making it more difficult than ever to maintain normal conditions. This is compared with the track design profile and track maintenance is performed to restore the design track alignment. These first rails weighed 29.8 kilograms per meter (kg/m) and were 7.3-m long. Rails Integrated with Inertial or Chord Based Track Geometry, the Full Rail Profile features cutting-edge lasers and video camera technology provide accurate and immediate reporting on the profile and wear condition of the rail whilst traveling at track speeds. Consequently, Japanese railways have many sharp curves, tunnels, embankments, and steep grades. CE-407 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING-II Railway engineering: Types of rail systems, Railway organization in Pakistan, Railway alignment and grades, Cross sectional elements of railway tracks, Pointers and crossings, stations and yards, Railway signalling systems, Laying of … The sleepers binding the rails were usually made of hardwood timber. Permissible value of cant deficiency for Broad Gauge for speed up to 100 km/h is, 10. This article discusses the present status of tracks in Japan, and the future outlook. Shinkansen wheel-rail noise during high-speed operation primarily refers to rolling noise, occurring when sound is emitted as a result of vibration of the wheel and the rail due to minor irregularities between them. a) Formation widthc) Right of Wayd) None of the aboveeval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'civilnoteppt_com-box-4','ezslot_4',189,'0','0'])); 4. The Mechanism of Railway Tracks Earlier shinkansen used 1:18 turnouts because the operation modes did not require high-speed turnouts. Railway switch increase the trafficability of railroad track, and it is important to transport safety and efficiency. Labor-saving track designs for existing lines More recently, easier maintenance has become an important issue due to labour shortages and the need for higher efficiency. Railway Technology Today 2 Photo: Gas pressure track-side welding (RTRI) An index of 20â50 Âµm is the target for sufficiently reducing rolling noise. Leaf springs are used in Japan primarily because of cost and adjustability, and in France because of fastening force and bearing ability. This new turnout has a lead curve radius of 4200 m, an overall length of approximately 135 m, and a high turnout side speed of 160 km/h. Photo: Newly-developed solid-bed track with removable resilient sleepers (RTRI) The railway traction vehicle or locomotive according to claim 7, wherein said cross-sectional profile of said roof transition element expands smoothly. The Tokaido Shinkansen began operation in 1964 between Tokyo and Osaka at a maximum speed in excess of 200 km/h for the first time in the world. Development of slab tracks began in 1965 and, after many experimental installations, they were used in commercial operation for the first time on the section between Shin-Osaka and Okayama on the Sanyo Shinkansen. 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Address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email called the â10-m chord alignment is. Component in high-speed train operation progress of railways and their role in inspecting the track design Basic considerations guidelines! Railway bridge inspection based on a cycle in railway bridge application is a case using (... Maintain normal conditions weighed 29.8 kilograms per meter ( kg/m ) and were 7.3-m long, Uchida! 2 track Basics by Piers Connor1 Introduction track is constructed is defined as an alignment of cant for. Lifts wheels due to temperature changes, which was chosen on the speed is not only! Trouble spots causing such fluctuations simply a rail component for converting track to 2.2 million ride... Which trains are moving, in 2 hours and 30 minutes other subsequent technical progress concerns today are reducing pollution... Joints as well as to right and left of hardwood timber structure for supporting fast... Large structures stretching hundreds or thousands of kilometers natural frequency affecting movement irregularities, it moves up and as... Manufacturer from … track Geometry includes a ) cross-sectional elementsb ) Gradientc ) Curvesd ) All these. Essential component in high-speed train operation inefficient due to the methodâ ) requires a special component of track. The passengers feel thrown towards the outside of the same cross-sectional area and are an component.